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港媒发布内地“鬼城”地图 东北部分布密集

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 共享住宿 升温提速:2020年预计交易规模500亿元 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

房地产业对实体经济带动作用有所下降

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Total Program Cost: $98,906
10. 《66》(Sixty Six)。刘易斯·卡尔(Lewis Klahr)把数码短片精彩地汇集在一起,以一种英雄气概的方式复制流行文化,它只在MoMA上映过一晚。但他的作品也在洛杉矶和旧金山等城市上映,所以如果你住在附近,可以去看他的下一次展映。
就像在领英上面快速的翻新简介一样,Foss说雇主们可能也会关注你突然一下子从推送小猫的GIF图和权力的游戏的剧透到推送一些具有思考意义的产业专注内容,参加Twitter上面找工作聊天。这些举动对你找工作当然有帮助,但是无益于找工作的隐秘性,所以还是要强调一下,慢慢来。
4.阿迪达斯。品牌喜爱度:35%/排名:25
Consumer Electronics Show
Even in jobs where you test applicants and those with the top scores are supposed to get the job, I've seen hiring managers fix scores to get the people they like.
塞巴斯蒂安佩恩(Sebastian Payne)

Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler are case studies of demagogues turned into despots.
普京在国际记者年度新闻发布会上表示,他准备和任何一位当选的美国总统合作。
Corkin died this year but shortly after, journalist Luke Dittrich published a book claiming Corkin buried inconvenient findings, shredded files, and acted unethically in gaining HM's consent.
Although Downey has a few movies coming out next year, they’re much smaller than his superhero films. He won’t see another huge payday until 2015 when Avengers: Age of Ultron hits theaters.
The ministry said that it had no tolerance for cheating and had asked public security departments to conduct an investigation.

Footnotes

  • 女性中等收入人群买1500万元房产 40%付全款
  • 10.《美国骗局》

10月份中国非制造业商务活动指数(非制造业PMI)为54.3,低于9月份55.4的近期峰值。其中,服务业商务活动指数为53.5,比9月份的峰值回落0.9个百分点。就连建筑业的形势似乎也有所恶化,商务活动指数为58.5,较9月份回落2.6个百分点。
这个家庭中心内部有三个摄像头,它能够连接到你的手机,你可以通过手机看冰箱里有什么。所以它基本上是一个6000美元替代用纸笔完成购物清单的替代品。
1. 芝加哥大学布斯商学院
“…claimed he was late because he got lost, but our receptionist said she had seen him hanging out at the coffee shop.”
“如果听到苹果CEO是同性恋,能帮助一些人努力直面自我,或者给一些感到孤独的人带来慰藉,或者激励人们坚持自己的平等权利,那么这值得我用个人隐私来交换,”他在为《彭博商业周刊》(Bloomberg Businessweek)的10月号撰文时写道。
《弗鲁特维尔车站》(Fruitvale Station)是另一部出色的故事片处女作,由瑞安?库格勒(Ryan Coogler)执导。这部影片的主题是赤手空拳的22岁黑人奥斯卡?格兰特(Oscar Grant)在加州奥克兰与一名白人交警发生冲突而遭到误杀,这本来可以成就一部纪录片。库格勒有更好的想法,将这个真实事件加以戏剧化改编,并在很大程度上进行了虚构,讲述了奥斯卡死亡前一天的生活。饰演这个角色的是迈克尔?乔丹(Michael Jordan),他的表演能让你心碎,也能令人欢乐不已,有时是两者兼具。

人民日报谈贷款租房:加快金融产品从购房向租房铺开

References

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